Brushfield spots are small white or grayish/brown spots on the periphery of the iris in the human eye due to aggregation of connective tissue, a normal iris element. These spots are normal in children (Kunkmann-Wolffian bodies) but are also a feature of the chromosomal disorder Down syndrome. They occur in 35-78% of newborn infants with Down syndrome. They are much more likely to occur in Down syndrome children of the Caucasian race than children of Asian heritage. Brushfield spots are named after the physician, Thomas Brushfield, who first described them in his 1924 M.D. thesis.
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- Sanez, R.B. (January 1999), "Primary care of infants and young children with down syndrome.", American Family Physician, 59 (2)
- Kim, J.H.; et al. (November 2002), "Characteristic ocular findings in Asian children with Down syndrome.", Nature, 16 (6)
- Hugh R.E. Wallis. The Significance of Brushfield's Spots in the Diagnosis of Mongolism in Infancy. Arch Dis Child. 1951 December; 26 (130): 495-500. Retrieved on 21 March 2009.