|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Identifiers|
|SMILES||Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Properties|
|Molar mass||180.21 g/mol|
|Solubility in water||moderate|
|Solubility in other solvents||acetone|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Hazards|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Related compounds|
|Related compounds|| 2,2'-bipyridine|
| (what is this?) |
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Phenanthroline (phen) is a heterocyclic organic compound. As a bidentate ligand in coordination chemistry, it forms strong complexes with most metal ions. In terms of its coordination properties, phen is similar to 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy).
Phenanthroline may be prepared by two successive Skraup reactions of glycerol with o-phenylenediamine, catalyzed by sulfuric acid, and an oxidizing agent, traditionally aqueous arsenic acid or nitrobenzene. Dehydration of glycerol gives acrolein which condenses with the amine followed by a cyclization.
1,10-Phenanthroline is an inhibitor of metallopeptidases, with one of the first observed instances reported in carboxypeptidase A. Inhibition of the enzyme occurs by removal and chelation of the metal ion required for catalytic activity, leaving an inactive apoenzyme. 1,10-Phenanthroline targets mainly zinc metallopeptidases, with a much lower affinity for calcium.
Ferroin and analogues
The complex [Fe(phen)3]2+, called "ferroin," is used for the photometric determination of Fe(II). It is used as a redox indicator with standard potential +1.06 V. The reduced ferrous form has a deep red colour and the oxidised form is light-blue. Ferroin is used as a cell permeable inhibitor for metalloproteases in cell biology.
In the related compound "bathophenanthroline," the 4 and 7 positions are substituted by phenyl groups.
As an indicator for alkyl lithium reagents
Alkyl lithium reagents form deeply colored derivatives with phenanthroline. The alkyl lithium content of solutions can be determined by treatment of such reagents with small amounts of phenanthroline (ca. 1 mg) followed by titration with alcohols to a colourless endpoint.
- B. E. Halcrow, W. O. Kermack (1946). "43. Attempts to find new antimalarials. Part XXIV. Derivatives of o-phenanthroline (7 : 8 : 3′ : 2′-pyridoquinoline)". J. Chem. Soc.: 155–157. doi:10.1039/jr9460000155.
- Felber, JP, Coombs, TL & Vallee, BL (1962). "The mechanism of inhibition of carboxypeptidase A by 1,10-phenanthroline". Biochemistry. 1: 231–238. doi:10.1021/bi00908a006. PMID 13892106.
- Salvesen, GS & Nagase, H (2001). "Inhibition of proteolytic enzymes". Proteolytic enzymes: a practical approach, 2 edn. 1: 105–130.
- Belcher, R. "Application of chelate Compounds in Analytical Chemistry" Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1973, volume 34, pages 13-27.
- George B. Kauffman, Lloyd T. Takahashi (1966). "Resolution of the tris-(1,10-Phenanthroline)Nickel(II) Ion". Inorg. Synth. 5: 227–232.
- F. P. Dwyer, E. C. Gyarfas, W. P. Rogers, J. H. Koch (1952). "Biological Activity of Complex Ions". Nature. 170: 190–191. doi:10.1038/170190a0.
- Paul J. Fagan and William A. Nugent (1998), "1-Phenyl-2,3,4,5-Tetramethylphosphole", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol., 9: 653 Missing or empty
- Ho-Shen Lin, Leo A. Paquette (1994). "A Convenient Method for Determining the Concentration of Grignard Reagents". Synth. Commun. 24: 2503–2506. doi:10.1080/00397919408010560.