|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Identifiers|
|SMILES||Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
|InChI||Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Properties|
|Molar mass||74.12 g mol−1|
|Density||0.7134 g/cm3, liquid|
-116.3 °C, 157 K, -177 °F
34.6 °C, 308 K, 94 °F
|Solubility in water||6.9 g/100 ml (20 °C)|
|Refractive index (nD)||1.353 (20 °C)|
|Viscosity||0.224 cP (25 °C)|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Structure|
|Dipole moment||1.15 D (gas)|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Hazards|
|Flash point||-45 °C|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Related compounds|
|Related Ethers|| Dimethyl ether|
|Related compounds||Diethyl sulfide|
| (what is this?) |
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Diethyl ether, also known simply as ether, is the organic compound with the formula (C2H5)2O. It is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic odor. It is the most common member of a class of chemical compounds known generically as ethers. It is a common solvent and was once used as a general anesthetic. Ether is sparingly soluble in water (6.9 g/100 mL).
Alchemist Raymundus Lullus is credited with discovering the compound in AD 1275, although there is no contemporary evidence of this. It was first synthesized in 1540 by Valerius Cordus, who called it "sweet oil of vitriol" (oleum dulce vitrioli) — the name reflects the fact that it is obtained by distilling a mixture of ethanol and sulfuric acid (then known as oil of vitriol)—and noted some of its medicinal properties. At about the same time, Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, better known as Paracelsus, discovered ether's analgesic properties. The name ether was given to the substance in 1730 by August Siegmund Frobenius.
As a fuel
Diethyl ether has a high cetane number of 85 - 96 and is used as a starting fluid for diesel and gasoline engines because of its high volatility and low autoignition temperature. For the same reason it is also used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines.
Diethyl ether is a common laboratory solvent. It has limited solubility in water, thus it is commonly used for liquid-liquid extraction. Being less dense than water, the ether layer is usually on top. Diethyl ether is a common solvent for the Grignard reaction, and for many other reactions involving organometallic reagents. Due to its immiscibility with water and the fact that non-polar organic compounds are highly soluble in it, ether is also used in the production of freebase cocaine, and is listed as a Table II precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. However, for that purpose it has been largely replaced by cheaper, safer, uncontrolled hydrocarbons.
William T.G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, M.D., is now known to have demonstrated its use privately as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, and Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on numerous occasions before 1846.
Ether was sometimes used in place of chloroform because it had a higher therapeutic index, a larger difference between the recommended dosage and a toxic overdose. Ether is still the preferred anesthetic in some developing nations due to its high therapeutic index (~1.5-2.2) [dubious ] and low price. Because of its associations with Boston, the use of ether became known as the "Yankee Dodge."
Today, ether is rarely used. The use of flammable ether was displaced by nonflammable anesthetics such as halothane. Additionally, ether had many undesirable side effects, such as postanesthetic nausea and vomiting. Modern anesthetic agents, such as methyl propyl ether (Neothyl) and methoxyflurane (Penthrane) reduce these side effects.
Ether, mixed with ethanol, was marketed in the 19th century as a cure-all and recreational drug, during one of Western society's temperance movements. At the time, it was considered improper for women to consume alcoholic beverages at social functions, and sometimes ether-containing drugs would be consumed instead. A cough medicine called Hoffmann's Drops was marketed at the time as one of these drugs, and contained both ether and alcohol in its capsules. Ether tends to be difficult to consume alone, and thus was often mixed with drugs like ethanol for recreational use. Ether may also be used as an inhalant.
In the 19th century and early 20th century ether drinking was popular among Polish peasants . It is a traditional and still relatively popular recreational drug among Lemkos. It is usually consumed in a small quantity (kropka, or “dot”) poured over milk, water with sugar or orange juice in a shot glass.
Most diethyl ether is produced as a byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol. This process uses solid-supported phosphoric acid catalysts and can be adjusted to make more ether if the need arises. Vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol over some alumina catalysts can give diethyl ether yields of up to 95%.
Diethyl ether can be prepared both in laboratories and on an industrial scale by the acid ether synthesis. Ethanol is mixed with a strong acid, typically sulfuric acid, H2SO4. The acid dissociates producing hydrogen ions, H+. A hydrogen ion protonates the electronegative oxygen atom of the ethanol, giving the ethanol molecule a positive charge:
- CH3CH2OH + H+ → CH3CH2OH2+
- CH3CH2OH2+ + CH3CH2OH → H2O + H+ + CH3CH2OCH2CH3
This reaction must be carried out at temperatures lower than 150 °C in order to ensure that an elimination product (ethylene) is not a product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, ethanol will dehydrate to form ethylene. The reaction to make diethyl ether is reversible, so eventually an equilibrium between reactants and products is achieved. Getting a good yield of ether requires that ether be distilled out of the reaction mixture before it reverts to ethanol, taking advantage of Le Chatelier's principle.
Another reaction that can be used for the preparation of ethers is the Williamson ether synthesis, in which an alkoxide (produced by dissolving an alkali metal in the alcohol to be used) performs a nucleophilic substitution upon an alkyl halide.
Diethyl ether is prone to peroxide formation, and can form explosive diethyl ether peroxide. Ether peroxides are higher boiling and are contact explosives when dry. Diethyl ether is typically supplied with trace amounts of the antioxidant BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), which reduces the formation of peroxides. Storage over NaOH precipitates the intermediate ether hydroperoxides. Water and peroxides can be removed by either distillation from sodium and benzophenone, or by passing through a column of activated alumina.
Ether is extremely flammable. The autoignition temperature of ether is only 170 °C (338°F), so it can be ignited by a hot surface without a flame or spark. A common practice in chemical labs is to use steam (thus limiting the temperature to 100 °C (212 °F) when ether must be heated or distilled. The diffusion of diethyl ether in air is 0.918·10−5 m2/s (298K 101.325 kPa).
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- Michael Faraday's announcement of ether as an anesthetic in 1818
- The unusual history of ether as an anesthetic, anesthesia-nursing.com
- Etheromania, worldwidewords.org
- Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic liquid viscosity, surface tension of diethyl ether, ddbonline.ddbst.de
bs:Dietil eter ca:Dietilèter cs:Diethylether de:Diethylether et:Dietüüleeter el:Διαιθυλαιθέρας es:Éter etílico fa:دیاتیل اتر fr:Éther diéthylique ko:다이에틸 에테르 id:Dietil eter it:Etere dietilico he:דיאתיל אתר lv:Dietilēteris lt:Dietileteris lmo:Eter dietilich hu:Dietil-éter mk:Диетил етер nl:Diethylether ja:ジエチルエーテル pl:Eter dietylowy pt:Éter etílico ru:Диэтиловый эфир simple:Diethyl ether sl:Dietil eter fi:Dietyylieetteri sv:Dietyleter tr:Dietil eter uk:Діетиловий ефірzh:乙醚
- "Ethyl Ether MSDS". J.T. Baker. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- 109. Aspergillus flavus mutant strain 241, blocked in aflatoxin biosynthesis, does not accumulate aflR transcript. Matthew P. Brown and Gary A. Payne, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 fgsc.net
- P. T. Normann, A. Ripel and J. Morland (1987). "Diethyl Ether Inhibits Ethanol Metabolism in Vivo by Interaction with Alcohol Dehydrogenase". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 11 (2): 163–166. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1987.tb01282.x.
- Larry K. Keefer, William A. Garland, Neil F. Oldfield, James E. Swagzdis, and Bruce A. Mico (1985). "Inhibition of N-Nitrosodimethylamine Metabolism in Rats by Ether Anesthesia" (PDF). Cancer Research. 45: 5457–60.
- "Ethers, by Lawrence Karas and W. J. Piel". Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.
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- Hill, John W. and Kolb, Doris K. Chemistry for changing times: 10th edition. Page 257. Pearson: Prentice Hall. Upper saddle river, New Jersey. 2004.
- Calderone, F.A. J. Pharmacology Experimental Therapeutics, 1935, 55(1), 24-39, Jpet.aspetjournals.org
- Erowid Ether Vaults : Hoffmann's Drops
- Zandberg, Adrian (2010). ""Villages… Reek of Ether Vapours": Ether Drinking in Silesia before 1939". Medical History. 54 (3): 387–396. PMC . PMID 20592886.
Kaszycki, Nestor (2006-08-30). "Łemkowska Watra w Żdyni 2006 – pilnowanie ognia pamięci". Histmag.org – historia od podszewki (in Polish). Kraków, Poland: i-Press. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
Dawniej eteru używało się w lecznictwie do narkozy, ponieważ ma właściwości halucynogenne, a już kilka kropel inhalacji wystarczyło do silnego znieczulenia pacjenta. Jednak eter, jak każda ciecz, może teoretycznie być napojem. Łemkowie tę teorię praktykują. Mimo to, nazywanie skroplonego eteru – „kropki” – ich „napojem narodowym” byłoby przesadą. Chociaż stanowi to pewną część mitu „bycia Łemkiem”.
- Ethyl Ether, Chem. Economics Handbook. Menlo Park, Calif: SRI International. 1991.
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