|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Biological half-life||1.5 hours|
|ATC code||L01AA02 (WHO)|
|Molar mass||304.212 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
|Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
Chlorambucil (marketed as Leukeran by GlaxoSmithKline) is a chemotherapy drug that has been mainly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and can be given orally.
In the past, chlorambucil has been used for treating some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, polycythemia vera, trophoblastic neoplasms, and ovarian carcinoma. It also has been used as an immunosuppressive drug for various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, such as nephrotic syndrome. Its current use is mainly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as it is well tolerated by most patients, though chlorambucil has been largely replaced by fludarabine as first-line treatment in younger patients.
Bone marrow suppression (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) is the most commonly occurring side effect of chlorambucil. Withdrawn from the drug, this side effect is typically reversible. Like many alkylating agents, chlorambucil has been associated with the development of other forms of cancer.
Less commonly occurring side effects include:
- Gastrointestinal Distress (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and oral ulcerations).
- Central Nervous System: Seizures, tremors, muscular twitching, confusion, agitation, ataxia, and hallucinations.
- Skin reactions
- Takimoto CH, Calvo E. "Principles of Oncologic Pharmacotherapy" in Pazdur R, Wagman LD, Camphausen KA, Hoskins WJ (Eds) Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 11 ed. 2008.
- Rai KR, Peterson BL, Appelbaum FR, Kolitz J, Elias L, Shepherd L, Hines J, Threatte GA, Larson RA, Cheson BD, Schiffer CA (2000). "Fludarabine compared with chlorambucil as primary therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia". N Engl J Med. 343 (24): 1750–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM200012143432402. PMID 11114313.