|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Oral (capsules, tablets, oral solution)|
|Bioavailability||Variably absorbed from GI tract|
|Metabolism||does not undergo significant metabolism (>95% excreted unchanged in urine)|
|Biological half-life||5.6-14.8 h|
|Excretion||Primarily excreted unchanged in urine|
|ATC code||C03AA03 (WHO)|
|Molar mass||297.74[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
|Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
Hydrochlorothiazide, abbreviated HCTZ, HCT, or HZT, is a first line diuretic drug of the thiazide class that acts by inhibiting the kidneys' ability to retain water. This reduces the volume of the blood, decreasing blood return to the heart and thus cardiac output and, by other mechanisms, is believed to lower peripheral vascular resistance. Hydrochlorothiazide is sold both as a generic drug and under a large number of brand names, including Apo-Hydro, Aquazide H, Dichlotride, Hydrodiuril, HydroSaluric, Microzide, Esidrex, and Oretic.
Hydrochlorothiazide is also used in combination with many popular drugs used to treat hypertension such as Diovan HCT, Zestoretic, Benicar HCT, Atacand HCT, and Lotensin HCT, Temax-H and others.
Mechanism of action
Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to the thiazide class of diuretics, acting on the kidneys to reduce sodium (Na) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The major site of action in the nephron appears on an electroneutral Na+-Cl- co-transporter by competing for the chloride site on the transporter. By impairing Na transport in the distal convoluted tubule, hydrochlorothiazide induces a natriuresis and concomitant water loss. Thiazides increase the reabsorption of calcium in this segment in a manner unrelated to sodium transport. .
HCTZ is often used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, symptomatic edema and the prevention of kidney stones. It is effective for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and is also sometimes used for hypercalciuria, Dent's disease and Ménière's disease. For diabetes insipidus, the effect of thiazide diuretics is presumably mediated by a hypovolemia-induced increase in proximal sodium and water reabsorption, thereby diminishing water delivery to the ADH-sensitive sites in the collecting tubules and reducing the urine output.
Thiazides are also used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Thiazides decrease mineral bone loss by promoting calcium retention in the kidney, and by directly stimulating osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation.
- Hyperuricemia and gout
- High blood sugar
- Weight Gain
Please Note - you may experience an allergic reaction to this medication if you are allergic to sulfa drugs.
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- NIH medlineplus druginfo
- U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - Hydrochlorothiazide
es:Hidroclorotiazida fa:هیدروکلروتیازید hr:Hidroklorotiazid it:Idroclorotiazide hu:Hidroklorotiazid nl:Hydrochloorthiazide ja:ヒドロクロロチアジド no:Hydroklortiazid nn:Hydroklortiazid pl:Hydrochlorotiazyd pt:Hidroclorotiazida ru:Гидрохлоротиазидsv:Hydroklortiazid
- Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Rosén A. (1976). "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of hydrochlorothiazide". Clin Pharmacol Ther. 19 (5 (Pt 1)): 531–7.
- Uniformed Services University Pharmacology Note Set #3 2010, Lectures #39 & #40, Eric Marks
- Dvorak MM, De Joussineau C, Carter DH; et al. (2007). "Thiazide diuretics directly induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by interacting with a sodium chloride co-transporter in bone". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 18 (9): 2509–16. doi:10.1681/ASN.2007030348. PMC . PMID 17656470.