|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
2-(aminomethyl)- 6-[4,6-diamino-3- [4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxy- 2-hydroxy- cyclohexoxy]- tetrahydropyran- 3,4,5-triol
|Oral, intravenous, intramuscular|
|Bioavailability||very low after oral delivery|
|Biological half-life||2 hours 30 minutes|
|Excretion||Urine (as unchanged drug)|
|ATC code||A07AA08 (WHO) J01 S01|
|Molar mass||484.499[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
Kanamycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in both oral and intravenous forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. Kanamycin is isolated from Streptomyces kanamyceticus.
Use in research
Kanamycin is used in molecular biology as a selective agent most commonly to isolate bacteria (e.g., E. coli) which have taken up genes (e.g., of plasmids) coupled to a gene coding for kanamycin resistance (primarily Neomycin phosphotransferase II [NPT II/Neo]). Bacteria that have been transformed with a plasmid containing the kanamycin resistance gene are plated on kanamycin (50-100ug/ml) containing agar plates or are grown in media containing kanamycin (50-100ug/ml). Only the bacteria that have successfully taken up the kanamycin resistance gene become resistant and will grow under these conditions. As a powder kanamycin is white to off-white and is soluble in water (50mg/ml).
At least one such gene, Atwbc19 is native to a plant species, of comparatively large size and its coded protein acts in a manner which decreases the possibility of Horizontal Gene Transfer from the plant to bacteria; it may be incapable of giving resistance to kanamycin to bacteria even if gene transfer occurs.
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- Garrod, L.P., et al.: "Antibiotic and Chemotherapy", page 131. Churchill Livingstone, 1981
- Pestka, S.: "The Use of Inhibitors in Studies on Protein Synthesis", Methods in Enzymology 30, pp.261-282, 1975
- Misumi, M. & Tanaka, N.: "Mechanism of Inhibition of Translocation by Kanamycin and Viomycin: A Comparative Study with Fusidic Acid, Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 92, pp.647-654, 1980
- Consumer Drug Information: Kanamycin, 2 April 2008, retrieved 2008-05-04
- Horizontal Gene Transfer: Plant vs. Bacterial Genes for Antibiotic Resistance Scenario's—What's the Difference?