|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
[8-methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)- 8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1] oct-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
|Protein binding||0 to 9% in vitro|
|Biological half-life||2 hours|
|ATC code||R01AX03 (WHO) R03|
|Molar mass||332.457 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
|Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
Ipratropium (Atrovent, Apovent, Aerovent) is an anticholinergic drug. It blocks the muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the smooth muscles of the bronchi in the lungs. This opens the bronchi, and provides relief in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute asthma.
It is administered by inhalation for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases.
Ipratropium is also combined with fenoterol (trade names Duovent and Berodual N) for the management of asthma.
Ipratropium can reduce rhinorrhea but will not help nasal congestion.
It blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors, without specificity for subtypes, resulting in a decrease in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Most likely due to actions of cGMP on intracellular calcium, this results in decreased contractility of smooth muscle in the lung, inhibiting bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. It is a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, and does not diffuse into the blood, which prevents systemic side-effects. Ipratropium is a derivative of atropine but is a quaternary amine and therefore does not cross the blood-brain barrier, which prevents central side-effects (anticholinergic syndrome). Ipratropium is considered a short-acting bronchodilator.
If ipratropium is inhaled, side-effects resembling those of other anticholinergics are minimal. However, dry mouth and sedation have been reported. Also effects such as skin flushing, tachycardia, acute angle ocular dislocure, nausea, palpitations and headache have been observed. Ipratropium does not decrease mucuciliary clearance unlike other muscarininc antagonists.
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- Yamatake Y, Sasagawa S, Yanaura S, Okamiya Y (1977). "[Antiallergic asthma effect of ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) in dogs (author's transl)]". Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi (in Japanese). 73 (7): 785–91. PMID 145994.
- Kerstjens HA, Bantje TA, Luursema PB; et al. (2007). "Effects of short-acting bronchodilators added to maintenance tiotropium therapy". Chest. 132 (5): 1493–9. doi:10.1378/chest.06-3059. PMID 17890476.
- Knott L (November 20, 2007). "Antimuscarinic Bronchodilators". PatientUK. EMIS. Retrieved 2008-06-16.