|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|ATC code||R01AA07 (WHO) S01|
|Molar mass||244.37516 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
Mechanism of action
The drug works by constricting the blood vessels in the nose. The vasoconstriction means that there is less pressure in the capillaries and less water can filter out, thus less discharge is made. (If the colour of the nasal passage is observed, it is visibly paler after dosage.)
Xylometazoline is an imidazole derivative which is designed to mimic the molecular shape of adrenaline. It binds to alpha-adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa. Due to its sympathomimetic effects, it should not be used by people with high blood pressure, or other heart problems.
Extended usage of xylometazoline can result in decreased effectiveness or a build up of tolerance against the drug. The number of receptors decreases, and when the administration of the drug is ceased, chronic congestion can occur; this is called rhinitis medicamentosa, commonly referred to as rebound congestion. Moreover long-term overdosing can cause degenerative changes in nasal mucous membranes that pose another health problem.
Xylometazoline is sold under a number of brand names worldwide, including: Cirovin, Klarigen (in Denmark), Nasolin, Neo-Rinoleina, Novorin, Olynth, Otrinoz, Otriven, Otrivin, Otrivine, Otrix, Sinutab Nasal Spray, Sudafed, Xylo-COMOD, Xylovit, Zolynd (in Serbia), Xynosine (in Pakistan), and Xymelin.
Hueni, A.; 1959, U.S. Patent 2,868,802.
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- Eccles, R.; Eriksson, M.; Garreffa, S.; Chen, S. (2008). "The nasal decongestant effect of xylometazoline in the common cold". American journal of rhinology. 22 (5): 491–496. doi:10.2500/ajr.2008.22.3202. PMID 18655753.
- Haenisch, B.; Walstab, J.; Herberhold, S.; Bootz, F.; Tschaikin, M.; Ramseger, R.; Bönisch, H. (2009). "Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline". Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00805.x. PMID 20030735.
- Gold Standard Clinical Pharmacology