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Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-N,N-dimethyl-2- (1-phenyl-1-pyridin-2-yl-ethoxy)- ethanamine
Clinical data
  • US: A (No risk in human studies)
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Oral: 24.7%, Intranasal: 70.8% [1]
Metabolism Hepatic
Biological half-life variable; 6–12 hours
Excretion Urine (primarily as metabolites)
CAS Number 469-21-6
ATC code R06AA09 (WHO)
PubChem CID 3162
DrugBank APRD00937
ChemSpider 3050
Chemical data
Formula C17H22N2O
Molar mass 270.369 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]
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Doxylamine succinate is one of the many sedating antihistamines used by itself as a short-term sedative, and in combination with other drugs as a night-time cold and allergy relief drug. It is also used in combination with the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen) and codeine as an analgesic/calmative preparation, and is prescribed in combination with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to prevent morning sickness in pregnant women.


Doxylamine is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistamines and has anti-allergy power superior to almost every other antihistamine on the market, with the exception of diphenhydramine (Benadryl)[citation needed]. It is also the most effective over-the-counter sedative available in the United States, and is more sedating than some prescription hypnotics. One study found that doxylamine succinate is possibly more effective than the barbiturate phenobarbital for use as a sedativeCitation Needed. The dosage required to induce hypnosis (sleep) can be as low as 6.25 mg, but is usually effective in dosages of up to 25 mg. Higher doses are not recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration, although single dosage recommendations of up to 50 mg are common in some countries, including Australia, where it is marketed under the names Restavit and Dozile.


The two main metabolites are desmethyldoxylamine and didesmethyldoxylamine.


Side effects

Doxylamine succinate is a potent anticholinergic and has a side-effect profile common to such drugs, including dry mouth, ataxia, urinary retention, and drowsiness.


Doxylamine succinate is generally safe for administration to healthy adults. Typical preparations that contain doxylamine range from 6.25 mg to 50 mg. The LD50 is estimated to be 50–500 mg/kg in humans.[2] Symptoms of overdose may include dry mouth, dilated pupils, insomnia, euphoria, hallucinations, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, and death.[3] Fatalities have been reported from doxylamine overdose. These have been characterized by coma, grand mal seizures and cardiorespiratory arrest. Children appear to be at a high risk for cardiorespiratory arrest. A toxic dose for children of more than 1.8 mg/kg has been reported. A 3 year old child died 18 hours after ingesting 1,000 mg doxylamine succinate.[4][dead link] Rarely, an overdose results in rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.[5]


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de:Doxylamin es:Doxilamina fr:Doxylamine ja:ドキシラミン pt:Doxilamina ru:Доксиламин

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