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The rubiscolins are a group of opioid peptides which are formed during digestion of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) protein from spinach leaves. Rubiscolins mimic the effects of opiates and therefore influence the brain. These peptides have much in common with the better known gluten exorphins. The rubiscolins' impact on mental health is not yet known.

There are 2 known rubiscolins with known structure:


  • Structure: H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-OH
  • Chemical formula: C30H45N5O9
  • Molecular weight: 619.70 g/mol


  • Structure: H-Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Thr-OH
  • Chemical formula: C39H54N6O10
  • Molecular weight: 766.87 g/mol

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