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Ciramadol (WY-15,705) is an opioid analgesic that was developed in the late 1970s and is related to tramadol, tapentadol and venlafaxine. It is a mixed agonist-antagonist for the μ-opioid receptor with relatively low abuse potential and a ceiling on respiratory depression which makes it a relatively safe drug. It has a slightly higher potency and effectiveness as an analgesic than codeine, but is weaker than morphine. Other side effects include sedation and nausea but these are generally less severe than with other similar drugs.
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- Cochrane AD, Bell R, Sullivan JR, Shaw J. Ciramadol. A new analgesic. Medical Journal of Australia. 1979 Nov 3;2(9):501-2.
- Preston KL, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA. Comparative evaluation of morphine, pentazocine and ciramadol in postaddicts. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1987 Mar;240(3):900-10.
- Romagnoli A, Keats AS. Low ceiling respiratory depression by ciramadol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research. 1986;6(6):451-5.
- Downing JW, Brock-Utne JG, Holloway AM. Ciramadol - a new synthetic analgesic. A double-blind comparison with oral codeine for postoperative pain relief. South African Medical Journal. 1983 Dec 10;64(25):978-82.
- Powell WF. A double-blind comparison of multiple intramuscular doses of ciramadol, morphine, and placebo for the treatment of postoperative pain. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1985 Nov;64(11):1101-7.
- Stambaugh JE Jr, McAdams J. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy and safety oral ciramadol, codeine, and placebo in patients with chronic cancer pain. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1987 Feb;27(2):162-6.