|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|by intravenous infusion only|
|Metabolism||near complete hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites|
|Biological half-life||2 hours|
|ATC code||N05CM18 (WHO)|
|Molar mass||200.28 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
|Script error: No such module "collapsible list".|
Dexmedetomidine is a sedative medication used by intensive care units and anesthesiologists, and is marketed under the brand name Precedex (Hospira, Inc.) in the United States. It is relatively unique in its ability to provide sedation without causing respiratory depression. Like clonidine, its mechanism of action is agonism of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in certain parts of the brain.
Dexmedetomidine is indicated for sedation of critically ill or injured patients in an intensive care unit setting. It is also useful as an adjunct for sedation and general anesthesia in the setting of certain operations and invasive medical procedures, such as colonoscopy. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of dexmedetomidine.
Intensive care unit sedation
Compared to midazolam, dexmedetomidine was similarly effective for sedation, but shortened the time to extubation, was associated with less delirium, and experience more bradycardia and less tachycardia and hypertension. It also seemed to be superior to lorazepam for ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. Compared to midazolam, dexmedetomidine is superior due to reduced intensive care costs. The reduced decreased costs are due to a reduction in intensive care unit stay costs as well as reduced mechanical ventilation costs.
Dexmedetomidine has sedative, analgesic, sympatholytic, and anxiolytic effects that blunt many of the cardiovascular responses in the perioperative period. It reduces the requirements for volatile anesthetics, sedatives and analgesics without causing significant respiratory depression.
Dosage and administration
Warnings, precautions, and adverse effects
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