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File:4-MMC 3D.gif
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Routes of
Oral, Insufflation, IV, rectal[2]
Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number 1189805-46-6
1189726-22-4 (HCl)[1]:5
ATC code none
PubChem CID 29982893
ChemSpider 21485694r
Synonyms 4-methyl-N-methylcathinone; 2-methylamino-1-p-tolylpropan-1-one[3]
Chemical data
Formula C11H15NO
Molar mass 177.242 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]
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Mephedrone, also known as 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), or 4-methylephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant and entactogen drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. Slang names include meph,[4] drone[5] and MCAT.[6] It is reportedly manufactured in China and is chemically based on the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, amphetamines and cocaine. It was first synthesised in 1929 but did not become widely known until it was rediscovered in 2003. By 2007 mephedrone was reported to be available for sale on the internet, by 2008 law enforcement agencies had become aware of the compound and by 2010 it had been reported in most of Europe, being particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom.

As well as producing the intended stimulant effects, negative side effects occur when mephedrone is used, with teeth grinding being the most common. The metabolism of mephedrone has been studied in rats and humans, with the metabolites being able to be detected in urine after usage. Nothing is known about the potential neurotoxicity of mephedrone, but scientists have suggested possible dangers associated with its use based on its similarity to other drugs. Several people have died after consuming mephedrone, but some deaths that the media attributed to the drug were later determined to have been caused by other factors. Mephedrone was first made illegal in Israel in 2008, followed by Sweden later that year. In 2010 it was made illegal in many European countries, but remains legal in others. In Australia, New Zealand, the USA and Canada it is considered illegal as an analog of other illegal drugs and is controlled by laws similar to the Federal Analog Act.


According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, the synthesis of mephedrone was first reported in 1929 by Saem de Burnaga Sanchez in the Bulletin de la Société Chimique de France, under the name "toluyl-alpha-monomethylaminoethylcetone",[7][1]:17 but the compound remained an obscure product of academia until 2003, when it was "re-discovered" and publicised by an underground chemist on The Hive website, working under the pseudonym "Kinetic."[8] Kinetic posted on the site, "I’ve been bored over the last couple of days and had a few fun reagents lying around, so I thought I’d try and make some 1-(4-methylphenyl)-2-methylaminopropanone hydrochloride, or 4-methylmethcathinone." before going on to describe that after taking it he had a "fantastic sense of well-being that I haven’t got from any drug before except my beloved Ecstasy."[9] A drug similar to mephedrone, containing cathinones was sold in Israel from around 2004, under the name hagigat. When this was made illegal, the chemicals were modified so that they where no longer illegal.[10] The Psychonaut Research Project, an EU organisation that searches the internet for information regarding new drugs, first identified mephedrone in 2008. Their research suggests that the drug first became available to purchase on the internet in 2007.[11] Mephedrone was first seized in France in May 2007 after police sent a tablet that they assumed to be ecstasy to be analysed.[12] The drug was used in early products, such as Neodoves pills, by the legal high company Neorganics,[13][14] but the range was discontinued in January 2008 after the government of Israel, where the company is based, made mephedrone illegal.[5] Mephedrone was reported as having been sold as ecstasy in the Australian city of Cairns, along with ethylcathinone in 2008.[15][16] Europol noted that they became aware of it in 2008, after it was found in Denmark, Finland and the UK.[17] The Drug Enforcement Agency noted it was present in the United States in July 2009.[18] By May 2010, mephedrone had been detected in every one of the 22 EU member states that reported to Europol, as well as in Croatia and Norway.[1]:21 It was reportedly manufactured in China, but it has since been made illegal there.[19] In March 2009, Druglink magazine reported that it only cost a "couple hundred pounds" to synthesise a kilogram of mephedrone.[10] The Daily Telegraph reported that manufacturers were making "huge amounts of money" from selling the drug.[20] In January 2010 Druglink magazine reported that dealers in Britain spent £2,500 to ship one kilogram from China but could sell it for £10 a gram making a profit of £7,500.[9][21] A later report, in March 2010, stated that the wholesale price of mephedrone was £4000 per kilogram.[22]

In the United Kingdom

Between the summer of 2009 and March 2010 the use of mephedrone grew rapidly in the UK, with it being readily available at music festivals, head shops and on the internet.[23] A survey of Mixmag readers in 2009, found that it was the fourth most popular street drug in the United Kingdom, behind cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy.[22] The drug is used by a diverse range of social groups. Whilst the evidence is anecdotal, researchers, charity workers, teachers and users have reported widespread and increasing use of the drug. The drug's rapid growth in popularity was believed to be related to both its availability and legality.[23] Fiona Measham, a criminologist at The University of Lancaster, believes that the emergence of mephedrone was also related to the decreasing purity of ecstasy and cocaine on sale in the UK.[23] The average cocaine purity fell from 60% in 1999 to 22% in 2009 and about half of ecstasy pills seized in 2009 contained no MDMA,[24] and by June 2010, almost all pills seized in the UK, contained no MDMA.[25] A similar pattern was observed in the Netherlands, with the number of ecstacy tablets containing no MDMA rising from 10% in mid 2008 to 60% by mid 2009 and with mephedrone being detected in 20% of ecstacy tablets by mid 2009.[26] The decrease of MDMA was thought in part, to be due to the seizure of 33 tonnes of sassafras oil, the precursor to MDMA, in Cambodia in June 2008, which could have been used to make 245 million doses of MDMA.[9] According to John Ramsey, a toxicologist at St George’s University London, the emergence of mephedrone was also related to the UK government banning the benzylpiperazine class of drugs.[10] Mephedrone was available on at least 31 websites based in the UK in December 2009; by March 2010 there were at least 78 online shops, half of which sold amounts of less than 200 grams and half that also sold bulk quantities. The price per gram varied from £9.50 to £14.[1]:11 Between July 2009 and February 2010, UK health professionals accessed the National Poisons Information Service's entry on mephedrone 1664 times and made 157 telephone enquiries; the requests increased month on month over this period. In comparison over a similar time period, the entries for cocaine and MDMA were accessed approximately 2400 times.[27]

Media organisations including the BBC and The Guardian, as well as a news section in the Annals of Botany,[28] incorrectly reported that mephedrone was commonly used as a plant fertiliser. In fact sellers of the drug described it as "plant food" because it was illegal to sell the compound for human consumption.[24] In late 2009, UK newspapers began referring to the drug as meow or miaow (sometimes doubled as meow meow or miaow miaow), a name that was almost unknown on the street at the time.[29] In November 2009, the tabloid newspaper, The Sun published a story stating that a man had ripped off his own scrotum whilst using mephedrone,[30] but this story was later shown to be an online hoax.[31] The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) have suggested that the media coverage of the drug lead to increased usage of it.[32]

A survey of 1000 secondary school pupils and university students in Tayside, conducted in February 2010, found that 20% of them had previously taken mephedrone. Although at the time it was available legally over the internet, only 10% of users reported purchasing it online, with most purchasing it from street dealers. Of those who had used mephedrone, 97% said that it was easy or very easy to obtain. Around 50% of users reported at least one negative effect associated with the use of mephedrone, with teeth grinding being the most common.[33]

On 30 March 2010, Alan Johnson, then the Home Secretary, announced that mephedrone would be made illegal "within weeks" after the ACMD sent him a report on the use of cathinones.[34][35] Prior to the ban being announced, Dr Polly Taylor, a member of the ACMD resigned, saying she "did not have trust" in the way the government would use the advice given by the ACMD.[36] Eric Carlin, a member of the ACMD and former chairman of the English Drug Education Forum, also resigned after the announcement that mephedrone would be made illegal. He said that the decision by the Home Secretary was "unduly based on media and political pressure" and there was "little or no discussion about how our recommendation to classify this drug would be likely to impact on young people's behaviour."[37] Some ex-members of the ACMD, and various charity groups have expressed concern regarding the banning of the drug, arguing it will inevitably criminalise users, particularly young people.[38] Others have expressed concern that the drug will now be left in the hands of black market dealers, who will only compound the problem.[39] The ACMD had run into problems with the UK Government in 2009 regarding drugs policy, after the government did not follow the advice of the ACMD to reclassify MDMA and cannabis, culminating in the dismissal of the ACMD chairman, David Nutt after he reiterated the ACMD's findings in an academic lecture.[40] Eric Carlin's resignation was specifically linked to the criminalisation of mephedrone, and he stated: "We need to review our entire approach to drugs, dumping the idea that legally-sanctioned punishments for drug users should constitute a main part of the armoury in helping to solve our country’s drug problems. We need to stop harming people who need help and support".[41] An editorial in the April 2010 edition of The Lancet questioned the decision to ban mephedrone, saying that the ACMD did not have enough evidence to judge the potential harms caused by mephedrone and arguing that policy makers should have sought to understand why young people took it and how they can be influenced to not take it.[32] In Chemistry World, John Mann professor of chemistry at Queen's University Belfast, suggested that the UK create a law similar to the Federal Analog Act of the United States, which would have made mephedrone illegal as an analog of cathinone.[42]

According to the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, since mephedrone was made illegal a street trade in the drug has emerged, with prices around double that of before the ban, at £20-£25 per gram.[43] Other supposedly legal drugs have also filled the gap in the market since mephedrone was made illegal, including naphyrone (NRG-1) (since made illegal)[44] and Ivory Wave, which has been found to contain MDPV, a compound made illegal at the same time as mephedrone. However it is possible that some products branded as Ivory Wave do not contain MDPV.[45] When tested, some products sold six weeks after mephedrone was banned, advertised as NRG-1, NRG-2 and MDAI were found to be mephedrone.[46]


There have been no formal published studies into the effects of mephedrone psychological and behavioural effects of mephedrone on humans, nor on animals from which the potential effects could be extrapolated. As a result the only information available comes from users themselves and clinical reports of acute mephedrone toxicity.[1]:12 Psychologists at Liverpool John Moores University were to conduct research into the effects of mephedrone on up to 50 students already using the drug, when it was still legal in the UK.[47] At the time the study was proposed, Les Iversen, the chair of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs called the experiments "pretty unethical".[48] The study was discontinued in August 2010, following the change in the legal status of the drug.[49]

Intended effects

Users have reported that mephedrone causes euphoria, stimulation, an enhanced appreciation for music, an elevated mood, decreased hostility, improved mental function and mild sexual stimulation; which are similar to the effects of cocaine, amphetamines and MDMA. These effects last different amounts of time, depending on the way the drug is taken. When taken orally, users report they can feel the effects within 15-45 minutes, when snorted the effects are felt within minutes. The effects last for between two and three hours when taken orally or nasally, but only half an hour if taken intravenously.[1]:12 Out of 70 Dutch users of mephedrone, 58 described it as an overall pleasant experience and 12 described it as being an unpleasant experience.[26] A survey of UK users, who had previously taken cocaine, found that most users found it produced a better quality and longer lasting high, was less addictive and carried the same risk to using cocaine.[2]

Side effects

According to drugs counsellors on Teesside, UK, mephedrone can cause hallucinations, nausea, vomiting, blood circulation problems, rashes, anxiety, paranoia, fits and delusions.[50] According to the drugs advice charity, Crew2000, other side effects may include poor concentration, poor short-term memory, increased heart rate, abnormal heart beats, anxiety, depression, increased sweating, dilated pupils, the inability to normally open the mouth, and teeth grinding.[51] When snorted it can also cause nose bleeds and nose burns.[50] A survey conducted by the National Addiction Centre, UK found that 51% of mephedrone users said they suffered from headaches, 43% from heart palpitations, 27% from nausea and 15% from cold or blue fingers.[52] Doctors at Guy's Hospital, London reported that of 15 patients they treated after taking mephedrone in 2009, 53.3% were agitated, 40% tachycardic, 20% had systolic hypertension and 20% had seizures; three required treatment with benzodiazepines, predominantly to control their agitation. They reported that none of their patients suffered from cold or blue peripheries, as other reports have done. Nine out of the 15 of patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 15 or above, 4 had a GCS below 8, but these patients all reported using a central nervous system depressant, most commonly GHB, with mephedrone. The patients also reported polydrug use of a variety of compounds.[53]

Long-term effects

Almost nothing is known about the long-term effects of the drug due to the short history of its use.[52] BBC News reported that one person who used the drug for 18 months became dependent on the drug, in the end using it twice a week, had to be admitted to a psychiatric unit after he started experiencing hallucinations, agitation, excitability and mania.[54][1]:13 Because of its similarity to cathinone, John Mann, has posited that mephedrone may cause impotence with long-term use.[55]

Typical use and consumption

Mephedrone can come in the form of capsules, tablets or white powder that users may swallow, snort or inject.[56] It is sometimes sold mixed with methylone in a product called bubbles in the UK[57] and also mixed with other cathinones including ethcathinone, butylone, fluoromethcathinone and methedrone.[1]:9 The Guardian reported that some users compulsively redose, consuming their whole supply when they are only meant to use a small dose[58] and there have been other similar reports of users craving mephedrone, suggesting that it may be addictive.[26][1]:13 A survey conducted in late 2009 by the National Addiction Centre (UK) found 41.3% of readers of Mixmag had used mephedrone in the last month, making it the fourth most popular drug amongst clubbers. Of those, two thirds snorted the drug and the average dosage per session was 0.9g; the length of sessions increased as the dosage increased. Users who snorted the drug reported using more per session than those who took it orally (0.97 g compared to 0.74 g) and also reported using it more often (5 days per month compared to 3 days per month).[2] An Irish study of people on a methadone treatment program for heroin addicts found that 29 out of 209 patients tested positive for mephedrone usage.[59]

Harm reduction

The drugs advice charity Lifeline recommends that to reduce the potential harm caused by using mephedrone, users should only use mephedrone occasionally (less than weekly), use less than 0.5g per session, dose orally rather than snorting the drug and avoid mixing it with alcohol and other drugs. Users should also drink plenty of water whilst taking the drug as it causes dehydration.[4]


Writing in the British Medical Journal, psychiatrists stated that given its chemical structure, "mephedrone is likely to stimulate the release of, and then inhibit the reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters".[60] Professor David Nutt, former chair of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) in the UK has said "people are better off taking ecstasy or amphetamines than those [drugs] we know nothing about" and "Who knows what's in [mephedrone] when you buy it? We don't have a testing system. It could be very dangerous, we just don't know. These chemicals have never been put into animals, let alone humans."[61] Les King, a former member of the ACMD, has stated that mephedrone appears to be less potent than amphetamine and ecstasy but that any benefit associated with this could be negated by users taking larger amounts. He also told the BBC "all we can say is [mephedrone] is probably as harmful as ecstasy and amphetamines and wait until we have some better scientific evidence to support that."[62] Molecular modelling of mephedrone suggests it is more hydrophilic than methyl-amphetamines which may account for the higher doses required to achieve a similar effect, because mephedrone is less able to cross the blood-brain barrier.[1]:12[63]


Based on the analysis of rat and human urine by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, mephedrone is thought to be metabolised by three phase I pathways. It can be demethylated to the primary amine (producing compounds 2,3 and 4) the ketone group can be reduced (producing 3) or the tolyl group can be oxidised (producing 5 and 6). It is thought that 5 and 6 are further metabolised by conjugation to the glucuronide and sulfate derivatives. Knowledge of the primary routes of metabolism should allow the intake of mephedrone to be confirmed by drug tests, as well as more accurate determination of the cause of side effects and potential for toxicity.[64]

File:Mephedrone metabolism.png
Proposed scheme for the metabolism of mephedrone based on the analysis of rat and human urine after ingesting mephedrone[64]


As of March 2010, nothing is known about the potential neurotoxicity of mephedrone[60] nor is the median lethal dose known.[2] In 2009, one case of sympathomimetic toxicity was reported in the UK after a person took 0.2 g of mephedrone orally and 3.8 g subcutaneously. The patient was treated with 1 mg of lorazepam and the sympathomimetic features decreased within 6 hours of treatment.[65] Reported side effects suggest mephedrone may cause pronounced peripheral vasoconstriction, and consequently it has been speculated that some metabolites may be potent vasoconstrictors, as the compound 4-methylephedrine which is closely related to some mephedrone metabolites, is known to be a vasoconstrictor with significantly more cardiovascular toxicity than ephedrine itself.[3][66] The Swedish medical journal Läkartidningen reported that mephedrone could theoretically cause the cardiovascular problems associated with the use of cocaine and amphetamines and serotonin syndrome associated with the use of ecstasy and LSD.[67] Both enantiomers of methcathinone, which differs only in the lack of the methyl group on the aryl ring when compared to mephedrone, have been shown to be toxic to rat dopamine neurons, and the S-enantiomer was also toxic against serotonin neurons. Simon Gibbons and Mire Zloh of The School of Pharmacy, University of London stated that based on the chemical similarities between methcathinone and mephedrone, "it is highly likely that mephedrone will display neurotoxicity".[63] However, Brunt et al. stated that "extreme caution" should be used when inferring the toxicity of mephedrone from methcathinone, noting that some of the toxicity associated with methcathinone is due to managanese impurities related to its synthesis, rather than the compound itself. They concluded that experimental research is needed to investigate the toxicity of mephedrone.[26]



In 2008, an 18-year-old Swedish woman died in Stockholm after taking mephedrone allegedly in combination with cannabis. Svenska Dagbladet reported that the woman went into convulsions and turned blue in the face.[68] Doctors reported that she was comatose and suffering from hyponatremia and severe hypokalemia; the women died one and a half days after the onset of symptoms. An autopsy showed severe brain swelling.[67] Mephedrone was scheduled to be classified as a "dangerous substance" in Sweden even before the girl's death at Karolinska University Hospital on Sunday, 14 December, but the death brought more media attention to the drug. The possession of mephedrone became classified as a criminal offence in Sweden on 15 December 2008.[68]


In 2010, there were unconfirmed reports speculating about the role mephedrone has played in the deaths of several young people in the UK.[69] By July 2010, mephedrone had been alleged to be involved in 52 fatalities in the UK, but detected in only 38 of these cases. Of the nine that coroners had finished investigating, two where caused directly by mephedrone.[70] The first death reported to be caused by mephedrone use was that of 46 year old, Stirling Smith, who had underlying health problems and repeatedly injected the drug.[71] A report in Forensic Science International in August 2010 stated that mephedrone intoxication has been recorded as the cause of death in two cases in Scotland. Post mortem samples showed the concentration of mephedrone in their blood was 22 mg/L in one case and 3.3 mg/L in the other.[72] The death of a teenager in the UK in November 2009 was widely reported as being caused by mephedrone, but a report by the coroner concluded that she died from natural causes.[73] Toxicology reports following the deaths of two teenagers (Louis Wainwright, 18, and Nicholas Smith, 19) that were widely reported by the media to be caused by mephedrone, and which led to a ban on the substance in April 2010, showed that the teenagers had in fact not taken any mephedrone.[71] According to Fiona Measham, a criminologist who is a member of the ACMD, the reporting of the unconfirmed deaths by newspapers followed "the usual cycle of ‘exaggeration, distortion, inaccuracy and sensationalism'" associated with the reporting of recreational drug use.[23]


Mephedrone has been implicated in the death of a 22 year old male, who had also injected black tar heroin. Mephedrone was found in his blood at a concentration of 0.50 mg/L and in his urine at a concentration of 198 mg/L. The blood concentration of morphine, a metabolite of heroin, was 0.06 mg/L.[74] For comparison, the average blood morphine concentration resulting from deadly overdoses involving only heroin is around 0.34 mg/L.[75]



A sample of mephedrone that was confiscated in Oregon, USA, 2009

Mephedrone is a white substance. It is sold most commonly as crystals or a powder, but also in the form of capsules or pills.[12][62] It can have a distinctive odour, reported to range from a synthetic fishy smell[76] to the smell of vanilla and bleach, stale urine, electric circuit boards.[77]


Mephedrone can be synthesised in several ways. The simplest method, due to the availability of the compounds,[1]:17 is to add 4-methylpropiophenone dissolved in glacial acetic acid to bromine to create an oil fraction of 4'-methyl-2-bromopropiophenone. This is then dissolved in CH2Cl2 and drops of the solution are added to another solution of CH2Cl2 containing methylamine hydrochloride and triethylamine. Hydrochloric acid is then added and the aqueous layer is removed and turned alkaline using sodium hydroxide before the amine is extracted using CH2Cl2. The CH2Cl2 is then evaporated using a vacuum, creating an oil which is then dissolved in a non-aqueous ether. HCl gas is then bubbled through the mixture to produce 4-methylmethcathinone hydrochloride.[13] This method produces a mixture of both enantiomers and requires similar knowledge to that required to synthesise amphetamines and MDMA.[1]:17

Mephedrone synthesis scheme

It can also be produced by oxidising the ephedrine analogue (4-methylephedrine) using potassium permanganate dissolved in sulphuric acid. Because 4-methylephedrine can be obtained in a specific enantiomeric form it is possible to produce mephedrone consisting of only one enantiomer. There is a danger associated with this method as it may cause manganese poisoning if the product is not correctly purified.[1]:17

Legal status

File:Map of european countries where mephedrone is illegal.svg
Map of Europe showing countries where mephedrone is illegal, correct as of August 2010

When mephedrone was rediscovered in 2003, it was not specifically illegal to possess in any country, as its use has increased many countries have passed legislation making the possession, sale and manufacturing of mephedrone illegal. It was first made illegal in Israel, where it had been found in products such as Neodoves pills, in January 2008.[5] After the death of a young women in Sweden in December 2008 was linked to the use of mephedrone, it was classified as a hazardous substance a few days later, making it illegal to sell in Sweden. In June 2009, it was classified as a narcotic with the possession of 15 grams or more resulting in a minimum of two years in prison - a longer sentence, gram for gram than given for the possession of cocaine or heroin.[78][79] In December 2008, Denmark also made it illegal[80] and through the Medicines Act of Finland it was made illegal to possess without a prescription.[81] In November 2009, it was classified as a "narcotic or psychotropic" substance and added to the list of controlled substances in Estonia[82] and made illegal to import into Guernsey along with other legal highs,[83] before being classified as a Class B drug in April 2010.[84] It was classified as a Class C drug in Jersey in December 2009.[85]

In 2010, as its use became more prevalent, many countries passed legislation prohibiting mephedrone. It became illegal in Croatia[86] and Germany[87] in January, followed by Romania[88] and the Isle of Man in February.[89] In March 2010, it was classified as an unregulated medicine in the Netherlands, making the sale and distribution of it illegal.[50][90] On 30 March 2010, the ACMD in the UK published a report on mephedrone and recommended it being classifed as a Class B drug. On 7 April 2010 the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010 was passed by parliament, making mephedrone and other substituted cathinones Class B drugs from 16 April 2010.[91][92] Prior to the ban taking effect, mephedrone was not covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.[19] It was however an offence under the Medicines Act to sell it for human consumption, so it was often sold as "plant food" or "bath salts" although, as it has no use as such products, this too was possibly illegal under the Trade Descriptions Act 1968.[50][35][52] The importation of mephedrone into the UK was banned on 29 March 2010.[93] In May 2010 the Republic of Ireland made it illegal,[90][94][95] followed by Belgium,[96] France,[97] Italy,[98] Lithuania[99] and Norway[100] in June. In August 2010, Austria[101] and Poland[102] made mephedrone illegal and China announced that it would be illegal as of 1 September 2010.[103]

In some countries, mephedrone is not specifically listed as illegal but is controlled under legislation that makes compounds illegal if they are analogs of drugs already listed. In Australia it is not specifically listed as prohibited,[13] but Federal Police have stated that it is an analogue to methcathinone and therefore illegal. In February 2010, 22 men were arrested in conjunction with importing mephedrone.[104] Similarly in New Zealand it is not included in the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975,[105] but is illegal as it similar to controlled substances.[106] In Canada, mephedrone is not explicitly listed in any Schedule of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, "amphetamines, their salts, derivatives, isomers and analogues and salts of derivatives, isomers and analogues" are included in Section I of Schedule III of the act. Cathinone and methcathinone are listed in separate sections of Schedule III while diethylpropion and pyrovalerone (also cathinones), are listed in separate sections of Schedule IV, each without language to capture analogues, isomers, etc.[107] According to The Globe and Mail, mephedrone is considered a controlled substance by Health Canada.[108] According to the Canadian Medical Association, mephedrone is grouped with other amphetamines as Schedule III controlled substances.[109] There have been several media reports of the Canadian police seizing mephedrone.[110][111][112] Mephedrone is also unscheduled in the United States[113] but has been made illegal in North Dakota.[114] Those selling the drug for human consumption may however, be prosecuted under the Federal Analog Act due to its similarity to methcathinone.[115]

As of April 2010 mephedrone is legal in Singapore,[116] in February 2010, 'CNN Go' reported that it was ordered over the internet and exported from the UK.[117] In August 2010, a government advisory body in Hungary recommended that mephedrone be made illegal, but it has yet to be controlled by parliament.[118] As of August 2010, mephedrone is still legal in Switzerland.[119]

See also


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External links

zh-min-nan:Mephedrone ca:Mefedrona cs:Mefedron de:Mephedron es:Mefedrona fr:Méphédrone hu:Mefedron nl:Mephedrone pl:Mefedron ru:Мефедрон

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 "Europol–EMCDDA Joint Report on a new psychoactive substance: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone)" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. 27 May 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Winstock, A.; Mitcheson, L.; Deluca, P.; Davey, Z.; Corazza, O.; Schifano, F. (2010). "Mephedrone, new kid for the chop?". Addiction (Abingdon, England): no. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03130.x. PMID 20735367.  edit
  3. 3.0 3.1 Meyer MR, Peters FT, Maurer HH (2009). "Metabolism of the new designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of the beta keto designer drugs mephedrone, butylone and methylone in urine" (PDF). Annales de Toxicologie Analytique. 21 (S1): 22. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Mephedrone - Frequently asked questions" (PDF). Lifeline publications. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Cumming, Ed (2010-04-22). "Mephedrone: Chemistry lessons". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-09-14. 
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  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 How mephedrone shook the drug world January/February 2010 issue of Druglink
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Mephedrone: the future of drug dealing?" (PDF). Druglink. March 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 
  11. "Psychonaut Web Mapping Project Newsletter". Psychonaut Web Mapping Project. June - September 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2009.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
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  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Camilleri, A; Johnston, MR; Brennan, M; Davis, S; Caldicott, DG (2010). "Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone and N-ethylcathinone". Forensic Science International. 197 (1–3): 59–66. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.048. PMID 20074881. 
  14. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  15. Guppy, Damon (18 June 2008). "Killer pills hit Cairns". Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  16. "Police warn of potentially fatal 'fake ecstasy'". 17 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  17. "EMCDDA 2008 Annual Report" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
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