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|Molar mass||378.55 g/mol[[Script error: No such module "String".]]|
Antalarmin is a drug that acts as a CRF-1 antagonist.
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also known as Corticotropin-releasing hormone, is an endogenous peptide hormone released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress and drug addiction. This, then, triggers the release of corticotropin (ACTH), another hormone involved in the physiological response to stress. Chronic release of CRF and ACTH is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in many of the harmful physiological effects of chronic stress, such as excessive glucocorticoid release, stomach ulcers, anxiety, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, depression, and development of high blood pressure and consequent cardiovascular problems.
Antalarmin is a non-peptide drug that blocks the CRF-1 receptor, and, as a consequence, reduces the release of ACTH in response to chronic stress. This has been demonstrated in animals to reduce the behavioural responses to stressful situations, and it is proposed that antalarmin itself, or more likely newer CRF antagonist drugs still under development, could be useful for reducing the adverse health consequences of chronic stress in humans, as well as having possible uses in the treatment of conditions such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction.
Results so far have had limited success, with various CRF antagonists being tested, which showed some antidepressant effects, but failed to produce an effect comparable with conventional antidepressant drugs. However more positive results were seen when antalarmin was combined with an SSRI antidepressant, suggesting a potential for synergistic effect. Encouraging results have also been observed using antalarmin as a potential treatment for anxiety and stress-induced hypertension.
Chronic antalarmin treatment also showed anti-inflammatory effects and has been suggested as having potential uses in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, as well as stress-induced gastrointestinal ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.
Mixed results have been seen in research into the use of antalarmin and other CRF-1 antagonists in the treatment of drug addiction disorders. Tests of antalarmin on cocaine use in cocaine-addicted monkeys produced only slight reductions of use that were not statistically significant, however in tests on cocaine-addicted rats, antalarmin did prevent dose escalation with prolonged use, suggesting that it might stabilise cocaine use and prevent it increasing over time, although without consistently reducing it.
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- Webster EL, Barrientos RM, Contoreggi C, Isaac MG, Ligier S, Gabry KE, Chrousos GP, McCarthy EF, Rice KC, Gold PW, Sternberg EM. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) antagonist attenuates adjuvant induced arthritis: role of CRH in peripheral inflammation. Journal of Rheumatology. 2002 Jun;29(6):1252-61.
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- Specio SE, Wee S, O’Dell LE, Boutrel B, Zorrilla EP and Koob GF. CRF1 receptor antagonists attenuate escalated cocaine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2008 Feb;196(3):473-482.
- Stinus L, Cador M, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. Buprenorphine and a CRF1 antagonist block the acquisition of opiate withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Jan;30(1):90-8.
- Funk CK, Zorrilla EP, Lee MJ, Rice KC, Koob GF. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 antagonists selectively reduce ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats. Biological Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 1;61(1):78-86.
- Chu K, Koob GF, Cole M, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ. Dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration in mice are blocked by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and by CRF1 receptor knockout. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 2007 Apr;86(4):813-21.
- Marinelli PW, Funk D, Juzytsch W, Harding S, Rice KC, Shaham Y, Lê AD. The CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin attenuates yohimbine-induced increases in operant alcohol self-administration and reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2007 Dec;195(3):345-55.