From Self-sufficiency
Jump to: navigation, search
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(±)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[4- (trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]propan-1-amine
Clinical data
[[Regulation of therapeutic goods |Template:Engvar data]]
  • AU: C
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
  • Rx Only (U.S.)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 72%
peak at 6-8 hours
Protein binding 94.5%
Metabolism Hepatic
Biological half-life 1-3 days (acute); 4-6 days (chronic); Active metabolite Norfluoxetine 4-16 days (acute and chronic)
Excretion Kidneys 80%, intestines 15%
CAS Number 54910-89-3
ATC code N06AB03 (WHO)
PubChem CID 3386
DrugBank APRD00530
ChemSpider 56589
Chemical data
Formula C17H18F3NO
Molar mass 309.3 g/mol (345.8 for •HCl)[[Script error: No such module "String".]]
Script error: No such module "TemplatePar".Expression error: Unexpected < operator.
File:Prozac pills cropped.jpg
Fluoxetine 20 mg capsules

Fluoxetine (trade names: Prozac, Sarafem, or in combination with olanzapine as Symbyax) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company.

Fluoxetine is approved for the treatment of major depression (including pediatric depression), obsessive-compulsive disorder (in both adult and pediatric populations), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.[1]

Despite the availability of newer agents, fluoxetine remains extremely popular. Over 22.2 million prescriptions for generic formulations of fluoxetine were filled in the United States in 2007[2], making it the third most prescribed antidepressant after sertraline (SSRI that became generic in 2006) and escitalopram (non-generic SSRI)[2][3].


The work which eventually led to the discovery of fluoxetine began at Eli Lilly and Company in 1970 as a collaboration between Bryan Molloy and Robert Rathbun. It was known at that time that the antihistamine diphenhydramine shows some antidepressant-like properties. 3-Phenoxy-3-phenylpropylamine, a compound structurally similar to diphenhydramine, was taken as a starting point, and Molloy synthesized dozens of its derivatives. Testing the physiological effects of these compounds in mice resulted in nisoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor currently widely used in biochemical experiments.[4][5]

Later, hoping to find a derivative inhibiting only serotonin reuptake, another Eli Lilly scientist, David Wong, proposed to retest the series for the in vitro reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. This test, carried out by Jong-Sir Horng in May 1972,[5] showed the compound later named fluoxetine to be the most potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake of the series.[6] Wong would publish the first article about fluoxetine in 1974. A year later, it was given the official chemical name fluoxetine and the Eli Lilly and Company gave it the trade name Prozac. In February 1977, Dista Products Company, a division of Eli Lilly & Company, presented a new drug request to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for fluoxetine.[7]

A controversy ensued after Lilly researchers published a paper titled "Prozac (fluoxetine, Lilly 110140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor and an antidepressant drug"[5] claiming fluoxetine to be the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Two years later they had to issue a correction, admitting that the first SSRI was zimelidine developed by Arvid Carlsson and colleagues.[8] Fluoxetine made its appearance on the Belgian market in 1986[9] and was approved for use by the FDA in December 1987.[10] Fluoxetine was the fourth SSRI to make it to market, after zimelidine, indalpine and fluvoxamine. However, the first two were withdrawn due to the side effects, and a vigorous marketing campaign by Eli Lilly made sure that in the popular culture fluoxetine has been perceived as a scientific breakthrough and associated with the title of the first SSRI.

Eli Lilly's patent on Prozac (fluoxetine) expired in the United States in August 2001,[11] prompting an influx of generic drugs onto the market. Prozac was rebranded "Sarafem" for the treatment of PMDD in an attempt to stem the post-patent decrease in Eli Lilly's sales of fluoxetine.[12]


Fluoxetine has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa and panic disorder.[13] Fluoxetine was shown to be effective for depression in 6-week long double-blind controlled trials, where it also alleviated anxiety and improved sleep. Fluoxetine was better than placebo for the prevention of depression recurrence when the patients, who originally responded to fluoxetine, were treated for a further 38 weeks. Efficacy of fluoxetine for geriatric, as well as pediatric, depression was also demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials.[13]

The peculiar pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine, with its brain levels rising extremely slowly over at least first 5 weeks of treatment (see Pharmacokinetics), makes it unclear whether the 20-mg/day optimal dose established in the short term (6–8 weeks) trials is applicable for the longer term supportive treatment. One 60-mg dose of fluoxetine per week was found to be equivalent to 20 mg/day for the continuation treatment of responders to 20 mg/day of fluoxetine.[14][15] Furthermore, 5 mg/day fluoxetine was shown to be better than placebo and similar to 20 mg/day,[16] and one weekly dose of 80 mg fluoxetine was equivalent to 60 mg/day fluoxetine or 150 mg/day amitriptyline.[15] Furthermore, increase of the dose to 60 mg/day in nonresponders from 20 mg/day brought no additional benefits as compared to continuing the 20 mg/day treatment.[16]

The recent research suggests that a significant part of the resistance to the SSRIs paroxetine (Paxil) and citalopram (Celexa) can be explained by the genetic variation of Pgp transporter. Paroxetine and citalopram, which are Pgp substrates, are actively transported from the brain by this protein. Fluoxetine is not a substrate of Pgp, and thus a switch from paroxetine or citalopram to fluoxetine may be beneficial to the nonresponders.[17][18]

OCD was successfully treated by fluoxetine in two adult and one pediatric placebo-controlled 13-week trials. The higher doses of fluoxetine appeared to result in better response, while the reverse relationship was observed in the treatment of depression.[13] Fluoxetine dramatically, by 40-50%, decreased the frequency of panic attacks in two controlled trials of panic disorder patients. In three double-blind trials, fluoxetine significantly decreased the number of binge-eating and purging episodes of bulimia nervosa. Continued year-long treatment of the patients, who originally responded to fluoxetine, was more effective than placebo for the prevention of bulimia nervosa episodes.[13]

Adverse effects

File:Fluoxetine 20mg with Packet.jpg
Fluoxetine capsules (20 mg), as prescribed in the United Kingdom

According to the manufacturer of Prozac brand of fluoxetine, Eli Lilly, fluoxetine is contraindicated in individuals taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pimozide (Orap) or thioridazine (Mellaril).[13] The prescribing information recommends that the treatment of the patients with liver impairment "must be approached with caution". The elimination of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine is about half as fast in these patients, resulting in the proportionate increase of exposure to the drug.[13] Ibuprofen used in combination with fluoxetine can cause significant intestinal bleeding after a period of use.

Among the common adverse effects associated with fluoxetine and listed in the prescribing information, the effects with the greatest difference from placebo are nausea (22% vs 9% for placebo), insomnia (19% vs 10% for placebo), somnolence (12% vs 5% for placebo), anorexia (10% vs 3% for placebo), anxiety (12% vs 6% for placebo), nervousness (13% vs 8% for placebo), asthenia (11% vs 6% for placebo) and tremor (9% vs 2% for placebo). Those that most often resulted in interruption of the treatment were anxiety, insomnia, and nervousness (1-2% each), and in pediatric trials—mania (2%).[13][19][20] Similarly to other SSRIs, sexual side effects are common with fluoxetine; they include anorgasmia and reduced libido.[21]

In addition, rash or urticaria, sometimes serious, was observed in 7% patients in clinical trials; one-third of these cases resulted in discontinuation of the treatment. Postmarketing reports note several cases of complications developed in patients with rash. The symptoms included vasculitis and lupus-like syndrome. Death has been reported to occur in association with these systemic events.[13]

Akathisia, that is inner tension, restlessness, and the inability to stay still, often accompanied by "constant pacing, purposeless movements of the feet and legs, and marked anxiety," is a common side effect of fluoxetine.[22][23] Akathisia usually begins after the initiation of the treatment or increase of the dose and disappears after fluoxetine is stopped or its dose is decreased, or after treatment with propranolol.[22][24][25] There are case reports directly linking akathisia with suicidal attempts, with patients feeling better after the withdrawal of fluoxetine, and again developing severe akathisia on repeated exposure to fluoxetine. These patients described "that the development of the akathisia made them feel suicidal and that it had precipitated their prior suicide attempts."[25] The experts note that because of the link of akathisia with suicide and the distress it causes to the patient, "it is of vital importance to increase awareness amongst staff and patients of the symptoms of this relatively common condition".[26][27] More rarely, fluoxetine has been associated with related movement disorders acute dystonia and tardive dyskinesia.[23][28][29]

Fluoxetine taken during pregnancy also increases rate of poor neonatal adaptation.[21] Because fluoxetine is excreted in human milk, nursing while on fluoxetine is not recommended.[30] A study of fluoxetine administered to newborn mice found that early postnatal exposure of the drug later caused the adult mice to exhibit depressive and anxious behavior similar to those of induced depression, which could be relieved by fluoxetine.[31] The American Association of Pediatrics classifies fluoxetine as a drug for which the effect on the nursing infant is unknown but may be of concern.[32]

Discontinuation syndrome

Several case reports in the literature describe severe withdrawal or discontinuation symptoms following an abrupt interruption of fluoxetine treatment, popularly referred to as "Prozac Poopout".[33] However, various studies have shown that the side effects of the fluoxetine discontinuation are rare and mild, especially compared to paroxetine, venlafaxine and fluvoxamine.[33] One of the recommended strategies for the management of discontinuation syndrome with other SSRIs is to substitute fluoxetine for the original agent, in cases where tapering off the dose of the original SSRI is ineffective.[34][35] The double-blind controlled studies support this opinion. No increase in side effects was observed in several studies when the treatment with fluoxetine was blindly interrupted for a short time (4–8 days) and then reinstated, this result being consistent with its slow elimination from the body. More side effects occurred during the interruption of sertraline (Zoloft) in these studies, and significantly more during the interruption of paroxetine.[36] In a longer, 6 week-long, blind discontinuation study, an insignificantly higher (32% vs 27%) overall rate of new or worsened side effects was observed in the group that discontinued fluoxetine than in the group that continued treatment. However, a significantly higher 4.2% rate of somnolence at week 2 and 5-7% rate of dizziness at weeks 4-6 were reported by the patients in the discontinuation group. This prolonged course of the discontinuation symptoms, with dizziness persisting to the end of the study, is also consistent with the long half-life of fluoxetine in the body.[37] According to a 2007 summary report of available evidence, fluoxetine has the lowest incidence of discontinuation syndrome among several antidepressants including paroxetine and venlafaxine. [38] See also SSRI discontinuation syndrome.


The suicidality of fluoxetine can be determined on various levels of specificity. It can be determined on the antidepressant level, on the SSRI level, and on the fluoxetine level—fluoxetine is an SSRI antidepressant. The more specific level, the fewer studies can be used in a meta-analysis of clinical trials on that level.


On the antidepressant level, the FDA requires all antidepressants to carry a black box warning stating that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicide in persons younger than 25. This warning is based on statistical analyses conducted by two independent groups of the FDA experts that found a 2-fold increase of the suicidal ideation and behavior in children and adolescents, and 1.5-fold increase of suicidality in the 18–24 age group. The suicidality was slightly decreased for those older than 24, and statistically significantly lower in the 65 and older group.[39][40][41] This analysis was criticized by Donald Klein, who noted that suicidality, that is suicidal ideation and behavior, is not necessarily a good surrogate marker for completed suicide, and it is still possible that antidepressants may prevent actual suicide while increasing suicidality.[42] This opinion goes against the general consensus that "suicidal ideation has been associated with suicide attempt in retrospective studies and with suicide in prospective studies."[43]


On the SSRI level, see the article SSRI, section Suicidality.


On the fluoxetine level, data is harder to come by than on the antidepressant and SSRI levels, as suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials are rare. For the above analysis on the antidepressant level, the FDA had to combine the results of 295 trials of 11 antidepressants for psychiatric indications to obtain statistically significant results. Considered separately, fluoxetine use in children increased the odds of suicidality by 50% (not statistically significant due to the low number of cases),[44] and in adults decreased the odds of suicidality by approximately 30% (statistically significant).[40][41] Similarly, the analysis conducted by the UK MHRA found a 50% increase of odds of suicide-related events, not reaching statistical significance, in the children and adolescents on fluoxetine as compared to the ones on placebo. According to the MHRA data, for adults fluoxetine did not change the rate of self-harm and statistically significantly decreased suicidal ideation by 50%.[45][46]


File:CYP2D6 structure.png
3 dimensional representation of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6. CYP2D6 is responsible for converting fluoxetine to its only active metabolite, norfluoxetine.[47] Both drugs are also potent inhibitors of CYP2D6.[48]

The bioavailability of fluoxetine is relatively high (72%), and peak plasma concentrations are reached in 6 to 8 hours. It is highly bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin.

Fluoxetine is metabolized in the liver by isoenzymes of the cytochrome P450 system, including CYP2D6.[1] The role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of fluoxetine may be clinically important, as there is great genetic variability in the function of this enzyme among people. Only one metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine (N-demethylated fluoxetine), is biologically active.

The extremely slow elimination of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine from the body distinguishes it from other antidepressants. With time, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine inhibit their own metabolism, so fluoxetine elimination half-life changes from 1 to 3 days, after a single dose, to 4 to 6 days, after long-term use. Similarly, the half-life of norfluoxetine is longer (16 days) after long-term use.[1][15][49] Therefore, the concentration of the drug and its active metabolite in the blood continues to grow through the first few weeks of treatment, and their steady concentration in the blood is achieved only after four weeks.[50][51] Moreover, the brain concentration of fluoxetine and its metabolites keeps increasing through at least the first five weeks of treatment.[52] That means that the full benefits of the current dose a patient receives are not realized for at least a month since its initiation. For example, in one 6-week study, the median time to achieving consistent response was 29 days.[50] Likewise, complete excretion of the drug may take several weeks. During the first week after the treatment discontinuation, the brain concentration of fluoxetine decreases only by 50%,[52] The blood level of norfluoxetine 4 weeks after the treatment discontinuation is about 80% of the level registered by the end of the first treatment week, and 7 weeks after the discontinuation norfluoxetine is still detectable in the blood.[15]

A PET study compared the action of a single dose of fluoxetine on exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual men who attested that their past and present sexual behavior, desires, and fantasies were directed entirely toward women or men, respectively. The study found that in some areas of the brain the metabolic response in these two groups was different. "Both groups, however, did exhibit similar widespread lateralized metabolic responses to fluoxetine (relative to placebo), with most areas of the brain responding in the same direction." They "did not differ on behavioral measures or blood levels of fluoxetine".[53]

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and does not appreciably inhibit norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake. Nevertheless, Eli Lilly researchers found that a single injection of a rat with a large dose of fluoxetine also results in a significant increase of brain concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine.[54][55][56] This effect may be mediated by 5HT2a and, in particular, 5HT2c receptors, which are inhibited by higher concentrations of fluoxetine. The Ely Lilly scientists also suggested that the effects on dopamine and norepinephrine may contribute to the antidepressant action of fluoxetine.[56] In opinion of other researchers, however, the magnitude of this effect is unclear.[52] The dopamine and norepinephrine increase was not observed at a smaller, more clinically relevant dose of fluoxetine.[57] Similarly, in electrophysiological studies only larger and not smaller doses of fluoxetine changed the activity of rat's norepinephrinergic neurons. Some authors, however, argue that these findings may still have clinical relevance for the treatment of severe illness with supratherapeutic doses (60–80 mg) of fluoxetine.[58] Among SSRIs, 'fluoxetine is the least "selective" of all the SSRIs, with a 10-fold difference in binding affinity between its first and second neural targets (i.e., the serotonin and norepinephrine uptake pumps, respectively).' Anything greater than a 10-fold difference results in insignificant activation of the secondary neuronal targets.[59]

Besides its well-known effects on serotonin, fluoxetine also increases density of endogenous opioid receptors[60] in the central nervous system, which may account for some of its side effects and/or antidepressant profile.

Measurement in body fluids

Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine may be quantitated in blood, plasma or serum to monitor therapy, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or assist in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma fluoxetine concentrations are usually in a range of 50-500 μg/L in persons taking the drug for its antidepressant effects, 900-3000 μg/L in survivors of acute overdosage and 1000-7000 μg/L in victims of fatal overdosage. Norfluoxetine concentrations are approximately equal to those of the parent drug during chronic therapy, but may be substantially less following acute overdosage, since it requires at least 1–2 weeks for the metabolite to achieve equilibrium.[61][62][63]


Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine inhibit many isozymes of the cytochrome P450 system that make drug metabolism possible. Both are potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (the main enzyme responsible for their metabolism) and mild to moderate inhibitors of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/2C19, and CYP3A4; furthermore, they inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein, a type of membrane transport protein that plays an important role in drug transport and metabolism.[64] This extensive effect on the body's pathways for drug metabolism creates the potential for interactions with many commonly used drugs.[64][65]

The simultaneous use of fluoxetine with triptans, tramadol or other serotonergic agents can result in a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction called serotonin syndrome.


In 1989, Joseph Wesbecker shot and killed eight people and injured 12 others before killing himself at his place of work in Kentucky. Wesbecker had been taking the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant fluoxetine for four weeks before these homicides, and this led to a legal action against the makers of fluoxetine, Eli Lilly.[66] The case was tried and settled in 1994, and as part of the settlement a number of pharmaceutical company documents about drug-induced activation were released into the public domain. Subsequent legal cases have further raised the possibility of a link between antidepressant use and violence.[67]

The Prozac Survivors Support Group created a report on 288 individuals who had suffered adverse effects from Fluoxetine during 1991 and 1992. It showed that most of the cases led to violence against self or other individuals. There were 164 cases in the suicide and suicide ideation category, including 34 complete suicides. There were also 133 cases of crime and violence, which featured 14 murders, nine attempted murders, 39 violent actions, 54 violent preoccupations and 17 crimes. The report also showed that 13 individuals had become addicted to Fluoxetine and 14 cases of alcohol forming or worsening.[68]

A meta-analysis published in February 2008 combined 35 clinical trials of four newer antidepressants (fluoxetine, paroxetine (Paxil), nefazodone (Serzone) and venlafaxine (Effexor)). These antidepressants belonging to three different pharmacological groups were considered together, and the authors did not analyze them separately. The authors concluded that "although the difference [between the placebo and antidepressants] easily attained statistical significance", it did not meet the criterion for clinical significance, as used by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK), "for any but the most severely depressed patients."[69] Some articles in the press using the titles "The creation of the Prozac myth"[70] and "Prozac does not work in majority of depressed patients"[71][72] presented these general findings about the relative efficacy of antidepressants and placebo as the findings about ineffectiveness of fluoxetine. In a follow-up article, the authors of the meta-analysis noted that "unfortunately, during its initial coverage, the media often portrayed the results as “antidepressants do not work”, which misrepresented our more nuanced pattern of findings."[73]

As of April 2, 2010, Fluoxetine (Prozac) is one of four antidepressant drugs that the FAA will allow pilots to take without automatically prohibiting them from piloting an aircraft. The others are Sertraline (Zoloft), Citalopram (Celexa), and Escitalopram (Lexapro).[74]

In popular culture

Because of Prozac's wide appeal as a popular antidepressant, the drug is frequently referred to in popular culture, in such media as books, movies, television and music.






Cite error: Invalid <references> tag; parameter "group" is allowed only.

Use <references />, or <references group="..." />

External links


ca:Fluoxetina cs:Fluoxetin de:Fluoxetin es:Fluoxetina eo:Fluoksetino fa:فلوکستین fr:Fluoxétine ko:플루옥세틴 it:Fluoxetina he:SSRI#תרופות ממשפחת SSRI hu:Fluoxetin nl:Fluoxetine ja:フルオキセチン no:Fluoksetin pl:Fluoksetyna pt:Fluoxetina ru:Флуоксетин simple:Fluoxetine fi:Fluoksetiini sv:Fluoxetin tr:Fluoksetin

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Prozac Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics,Studies, Metabolism". RxList.com. 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-14. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Verispan. "Top 200 Generic Drugs by Units in 2007". Drug Topics. 
  3. Verispan (2008-02-18). "Top 200 Brand Drugs by Units in 2007" (PDF). Drug Topics. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  4. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Wong, DT, Bymaster FP, Engleman EA (1995). "Prozac (fluoxetine, Lilly 110140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor and an antidepressant drug: twenty years since its first publication". Life Sci. 57 (5): 411–41. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(95)00209-O. PMID 7623609. 
  6. Wong D, Horng J, Bymaster F, Hauser K, Molloy B (1974). "A selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake: Lilly 110140, 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine". Life Sci. 15 (3): 471–9. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(74)90345-2. PMID 4549929. 
  7. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  8. Carlsson A, Wong DT (1997). "A note on the discovery of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors". Life Sci. 61 (12): 1203. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00662-0. PMID 9315511. 
  9. Swiatek, Jeff (August 2, 2001). "Prozac's profitable run coming to an end for Lilly". The Indianapolis Star. 
  10. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  11. "Patent Expiration Dates for Common Brand-Name Drugs". Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  12. Class, Selena (December 2, 2002). "Pharma Overview". Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 "Prozac prescribing information" (PDF). Eli Lilly. 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  14. Burke WJ, Hendricks SE, McArthur-Campbell D, Jacques D, Stull T (1996). "Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine serum concentrations and clinical response in weekly versus daily dosing". Psychopharmacol Bull. 32 (1): 27–32. PMID 8927671. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Burke WJ, Hendricks SE, McArthur-Miller D, Jacques D, Bessette D, McKillup T, Stull T, Wilson J (2000). "Weekly dosing of fluoxetine for the continuation phase of treatment of major depression: results of a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial". J Clin Psychopharmacol. 20 (4): 423–7. doi:10.1097/00004714-200008000-00006. PMID 10917403. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Gram L; Gram, Lars F. (1994). "Fluoxetine". N. Engl. J. Med. 331 (20): 1354–61. doi:10.1056/NEJM199411173312008. PMID 7935707. 
  17. Uhr M, Tontsch A, Namendorf C, Ripke S, Lucae S, Ising M, Dose T, Ebinger M, Rosenhagen M, Kohli M, Kloiber S, Salyakina D, Bettecken T, Specht M, Pütz B, Binder EB, Müller-Myhsok B, Holsboer F (2008). "Polymorphisms in the Drug Transporter Gene ABCB1 Predict Antidepressant Treatment Response in Depression". Neuron. 57 (2): 203–9. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.11.017. PMID 18215618. 
  18. Kato M, Fukuda T, Serretti A, Wakeno M, Okugawa G, Ikenaga Y, Hosoi Y, Takekita Y, Mandelli L, Azuma J, Kinoshita T (2008). "ABCB1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms are associated with the clinical response to paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder". Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 32 (2): 398–404. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.09.003. PMID 17913323. 
  19. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  20. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  21. 21.0 21.1 NTP_CERHR Expert Panel Report on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of fluoxetine (PDF). Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction. April 2004. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Lipinski JF, Mallya G, Zimmerman P, Pope HG (1989). "Fluoxetine-induced akathisia: clinical and theoretical implications". J Clin Psychiatry. 50 (9): 339–42. PMID 2549018. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Review:Leo RJ (1996). "Movement disorders associated with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors". The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 57 (10): 449–54. PMID 8909330. 
  24. Hansen L (2003). "Fluoxetine dose-increment related akathisia in depression: implications for clinical care, recognition and management of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced akathisia". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 17 (4): 451–2. doi:10.1177/0269881103174003. PMID 14870959. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Rothschild AJ, Locke CA (1991). "Reexposure to fluoxetine after serious suicide attempts by three patients: the role of akathisia". J Clin Psychiatry. 52 (12): 491–3. PMID 1752848. 
  26. Hansen L (2001). "A critical review of akathisia, and its possible association with suicidal behaviour". Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental. 16 (7): 495–505. doi:10.1002/hup.325. PMID 12404546. 
  27. Hansen L, Kingdom D (2006). "Akathisia as a risk factor for suicide". The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science. 188: 192. doi:10.1192/bjp.188.2.192. PMID 16449715. 
  28. Gerber PE, Lynd LD (1998). "Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor-induced movement disorders". Ann Pharmacother. 32 (6): 692–8. doi:10.1345/aph.17302. PMID 9640489. 
  29. Caley CF (1997). "Extrapyramidal reactions and the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors". Ann Pharmacother. 31 (12): 1481–9. PMID 9416386. 
  30. Prozac Medication Insert. Eli Lilly and Company Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA Literature revised December 4, 2006
  31. Karpova NN; Lindholm, J; Pruunsild, P; Timmusk, T; Castrén, E (2009). "Long-lasting behavioural and molecular alterations induced by early postnatal fluoxetine exposure are restored by chronic fluoxetine treatment in adult mice". Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 19 (2): 97–108. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2008.09.002. PMID 18973993. 
  32. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Blum D, Maldonado J, Meyer E, Lansberg M (2008). "Delirium following abrupt discontinuation of fluoxetine". Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110 (1): 69–70. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2007.08.016. PMID 17913343. For the earlier case reports see the references cited therein.
  34. Rosenbaum JF, Zajecka J (1997). "Clinical management of antidepressant discontinuation". J Clin Psychiatry. 58 Suppl 7: 37–40. PMID 9219493. 
  35. Schatzberg AF, Blier P, Delgado PL, Fava M, Haddad PM, Shelton RC (2006). "Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome: consensus panel recommendations for clinical management and additional research". J Clin Psychiatry. 67 Suppl 4: 27–30. PMID 16683860. 
  36. Fava M (2006). "Prospective studies of adverse events related to antidepressant discontinuation". J Clin Psychiatry. 67 Suppl 4: 14–21. PMID 16683858. 
  37. Zajecka J, Fawcett J, Amsterdam J, Quitkin F, Reimherr F, Rosenbaum J, Michelson D, Beasley C (1998). "Safety of abrupt discontinuation of fluoxetine: a randomized, placebo-controlled study". J Clin Psychopharmacol. 18 (3): 193–7. doi:10.1097/00004714-199806000-00003. PMID 9617977. 
  38. Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Thieda P, DeVeaugh-Geiss AM, Gaynes BN, Krebs EE, Lux LJ, Morgan LC, Shumate JA, Monroe LG, Lohr KN. (2007). "Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Generation Antidepressants in the Pharmacologic Treatment of Adult Depression". PMID 20704050. 
  39. Levenson M, Holland C. "Antidepressants and Suicidality in Adults: Statistical Evaluation. (Presentation at Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; December 13, 2006)". Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Stone MB, Jones ML (2006-11-17). "Clinical Review: Relationship Between Antidepressant Drugs and Suicidality in Adults" (PDF). Overview for December 13 Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC). FDA. pp. 11–74. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Levenson M, Holland C (2006-11-17). "Statistical Evaluation of Suicidality in Adults Treated with Antidepressants" (PDF). Overview for December 13 Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC). FDA. pp. 75–140. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  42. Klein DF (2006). "The flawed basis for FDA post-marketing safety decisions: the example of anti-depressants and children". Neuropsychopharmacology. 31 (4): 689–99. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300996. PMID 16395296. 
  43. Mann JJ, Ellis SP, Waternaux CM, Liu X, Oquendo MA, Malone KM, Brodsky BS, Haas GL, Currier D (2008). "Classification Trees Distinguish Suicide Attempters in Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Model of Clinical Decision Making". J Clin Psychiatry: e1–e9. PMID 18190232. 
  44. Tarek A. Hammad (2004-09-13). "Results of the Analysis of Suicidality in Pediatric Trials of Newer Antidepressants" (PDF). Presentation at the Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee and the Pediatric Advisory Committee on September 13, 2004. FDA. pp. 25, 28. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  45. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  46. Gunnell D, Saperia J, Ashby D (2005). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide in adults: meta-analysis of drug company data from placebo controlled, randomised controlled trials submitted to the MHRA's safety review". BMJ. 330 (7488): 385. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7488.385. PMC 549105Freely accessible. PMID 15718537. 
  47. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  48. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  49. "Drug Treatments in Psychiatry: Antidepressants". Newcastle University School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry. 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-14. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 Pérez V, Puiigdemont D, Gilaberte I, Alvarez E, Artigas F (2001). "Augmentation of fluoxetine's antidepressant action by pindolol: analysis of clinical, pharmacokinetic, and methodologic factors". J Clin Psychopharmacol. 21 (1): 36–45. doi:10.1097/00004714-200102000-00008. PMID 11199945. 
  51. Brunswick DJ, Amsterdam JD, Fawcett J, Quitkin FM, Reimherr FW, Rosenbaum JF, Beasley CM (2002). "Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations during relapse-prevention treatment". J Affect Disord. 68 (2-3): 243–9. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00333-5. PMID 12063152. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Henry ME, Schmidt ME, Hennen J, Villafuerte RA, Butman ML, Tran P, Kerner LT, Cohen B, Renshaw PF (2005). "A comparison of brain and serum pharmacokinetics of R-fluoxetine and racemic fluoxetine: A 19-F MRS study". Neuropsychopharmacology. 30 (8): 1576–83. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300749. PMID 15886723. 
  53. Kinnunen LH, Moltz H, Metz J, Cooper M (2004). "Differential brain activation in exclusively homosexual and heterosexual men produced by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine". Brain Res. 1024 (1-2): 251–4. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.07.070. PMID 15451388. 
  54. Perry KW, Fuller RW (1997). "Fluoxetine increases norepinephrine release in rat hypothalamus as measured by tissue levels of MHPG-SO4 and microdialysis in conscious rats". J Neural Transm. 104 (8-9): 953–66. doi:10.1007/BF01285563. PMID 9451727. 
  55. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  56. 56.0 56.1 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  57. According to Bymaster FP, Zhang W, Carter PA, et al. (April 2002). "Fluoxetine, but not other selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, increases norepinephrine and dopamine extracellular levels in prefrontal cortex". Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 160 (4): 353–61. doi:10.1007/s00213-001-0986-x. PMID 11919662. only injections of 10 and 20 mg/kg fluoxetine resulted in the increase of all three neurotransmitters. 3 mg/kg increased only serotonin and did not increase dopamine and norepinephrine. The injection with 0.7 mg/kg fluoxetine corresponds to the standard therapeutic dose of luoxetine, see Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  58. Miguelez C, Fernandez-Aedo I, Torrecilla M, Grandoso L, Ugedo L (2009). "alpha(2)-Adrenoceptors mediate the acute inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons". Neuropharmacology. 56 (6-7): 1068–73. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.03.004. PMID 19298831. 
  59. De-Spinning In Vitro Data.
  60. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  61. Lemberger L, Bergstrom RF, Wolen RL, Farid NA, Enas GG, Aronoff GR. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition. J. Clin. Psychiatry 46: 14-19, 1985.
  62. Pato MT, Murphy DL, DeVane CL. Sustained plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and/or norfluoxetine four and eight weeks after fluoxetine discontinuation. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 11: 224-225, 1991.
  63. R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 645-648.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Sandson NB, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL (2005). "An overview of psychotropic drug-drug interactions". Psychosomatics. 46 (5): 464–94. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.46.5.464. PMID 16145193. 
  65. An extensive list of possible interactions is available in Lexi-Comp (September 2008). "Fluoxetine". The Merck Manual Professional.  Retrieved on December 28, 2008.
  66. Healy D (2004) Let them eat Prozac. New York: New York University Press. pp 124–148.
  67. Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and Law, David Healy, Andrew Herxheimer, and David B. Menkes, PLoS Med 3(9): e372 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030372, 2006
  68. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  69. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  70. "The creation of the Prozac myth". London: The Guardian. February 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  71. Day, Michael (2008-02-26). "Prozac does not work in majority of depressed patients". New Scientist. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  72. Blue, Laura (February 26, 2008). "Antidepressants Hardly Help". Time. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  73. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  74. http://www.faa.gov/news/press_releases/news_story.cfm?newsId=11293